Breaking Down Fuel Pump Terminology: EFI, E85, LPH, Small Parts, and More
Navigating the world of fuel systems shouldn’t be difficult, especially when you’re simply trying to order quality parts for your machine. When it comes to fuel pumps, there is quite a bit of common terminology, whether you’re talking about automotive, motorcycle, ATV, UTV/Side-By-Side, or marine vehicles.
We’ve put together a helpful list of standard terms and definitions that you’ll come across when diving into a DIY repair for your vehicle. From basic definitions and acronym explanations — our informative guide will get you on the right path and keep you informed.
Quantum Fuel Systems specializes in producing high-quality fuel system components for nearly every EFI-equipped engine on the market. Our excellent direct replacement parts are designed in-house and will meet or exceed OEM quality. We offer replacement fuel pumps, kits, and components for nearly all makes and models backed by an industry-leading lifetime warranty. Visit our complete catalog to order now.
Fuel Pump Terminology Explained
Electronic Fuel Injection: Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) is any fuel delivery system that is electronically controlled by an Engine Control Unit (ECU). The name describes its function quite accurately because EFI systems inject fuel directly into an internal combustion engine’s manifold or cylinder. EFI has become the dominant fuel delivery method due to its inherent performance, emissions, and efficiency advantages over antiquated carbureted systems. There are several forms of fuel injection, such as single-point fuel injection, multi-point fuel injection, sequential fuel injection, and direct injection. Yet, they all follow the same fuel injection principles.
Fuel Injector: A fuel injector is one of the most crucial components in your EFI system; its function is where we get the name. A fuel injector is an electronically controlled valve and, when activated by your vehicle’s Engine Control Unit (ECU), sprays a precise amount of atomized fuel into the engine’s combustion chamber to facilitate an optimal air-fuel mixture under all operating conditions. QFS is an authorized dealer of fuel injectors from industry leaders such as Bosch, Injector Dynamics, RC Engineering, and Siemens Deka. We offer direct OE replacement and high-performance solutions for automotive, Powersport, and marine applications.
ECU/ECM: The Engine Control Unit (ECU) or Engine Control Module (ECM) is your vehicle’s brain and controls one or several electrical systems. Part of its duties is managing the EFI system, performing essential tasks like how long to hold the injectors open during each cycle to create the proper air-fuel ratio for any situation. It achieves this by monitoring data from several sensors and adapting accordingly.
OE Replacement: Original Equipment Replacement. All QFS products for powersports, from fuel pumps, O-rings, and more, match OE specifications and are guaranteed to be direct drop-in replacements.
OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer.
Fuel Rail: A fuel rail is a high-pressure fuel line that delivers fuel to the fuel injector.
Fuel Pump Assembly: The fuel pump assembly often houses critical components such as the fuel pump, pressure regulator, fuel sending unit, and strainers or filters. QFS offers entire replacement assemblies for many makes and models.
Fuel Sending Unit: A fuel sending unit measures the amount of fuel available in your fuel tank and communicates that information to the fuel gauge. It does not send fuel as the name suggests and instead sends an electrical current from the fuel level sensor to the fuel gauge. If your vehicle cannot accurately register fuel levels, a fault with this component can be the cause.
Fuel Pump: Direct OE replacement fuel pumps are what Quantum Fuel Systems specializes in, supporting nearly every corner of the automotive, Powersports, and marine market. The fuel pump delivers high-pressure liquid fuel to a carburetor or EFI system within the engine. All QFS fuel pumps feature an industry-leading lifetime warranty and are designed to withstand a variety of ethanol-gasoline fuel blends.
Intank Fuel Pump: “Intank” or “in-tank” refers to the physical location of the fuel pump. An intank fuel pump is located inside the fuel tank and explicitly designed for that purpose. Intank fuel pumps typically achieve longer operational lifespans than alternative designs since they are submerged in liquid fuel, helping cool and lubricate the pump.
External/Inline Fuel Pump: External/Inline fuel pumps are mounted on the exterior and underneath a fuel tank, as they use gravity to feed fuel into the pump. An external/inline fuel pump is often far easier to service and replace due to its mounting location.
Small Parts: This is a term that comes up in conversation with gearheads, sales staff, and suppliers within the fuel-system industry. “Small parts” refers to any components that are not the actual fuel pump. This can include but is not limited to; O-rings, gaskets, strainers, filters, pressure regulators, and other parts associated with fuel pumps. QFS has all the small parts you need to get your vehicle running again.
Filters: Filters do the critical job of extracting harmful particulates from fuel to protect sensitive EFI components. QFS filters screen microscopic contaminants that collect in a fuel tank and ensure that your vehicle’s EFI system is running at its best. A car, motorcycle, ATV, UTV/Side-by-Side, or boat may employ one or more filters at various stages of the fuel system.
Strainers: Strainers perform the same function as filters and are typically the first line of defense against fuel system contaminants. Common contaminants such as sand, dirt, dust, and gasoline varnish are screened out by QFS strainers, which feature multi-layer strainer media to filter even the smallest particulates. In addition, QFS strainers boast an expanded surface area, offering improved filtration abilities and extending the life of your fuel system components.
Pressure Regulator: The pressure regulator helps maintain proper PSI within your EFI system, allowing your fuel injectors to function correctly and air-fuel calculations to be as accurate as possible.
Dual Pump System: Any fuel system that relies on two fuel pumps is a Dual Pump System. In these systems, a low-pressure fuel pump transfers fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, then a high-pressure fuel pump takes over and delivers fuel to the EFI system. These systems are commonly used in marine applications where the fuel tank is not near the engine.
E85 Fuel (Flex Fuel): E85 is an ethanol-gasoline blend of fuel that can contain anywhere from 51% to 83% ethanol, depending on the season and location. E85, or Flex Fuel, is explicitly formulated for Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs), meaning that the internal combustion engine is designed to support high-volume ethanol fuel blends. While cheaper than gasoline, it has less energy density and often results in reduced fuel economy. This fuel cannot be used in motorcycles and Powersport vehicles.
Tank: The fuel tank. Every ICE-powered machine has one (or more).
Performance: Performance fuel system equipment means that you need components with superior flow rates than what OE equipment can provide. When building high-horsepower engines, this type of equipment is an absolute necessity to meet the increased performance demands.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE): Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a durable synthetic fluoropolymer used in all QFS corrugated flex hose lines. This robust plastic is hydrophobic and resistant to the harsh chemicals in today’s fuels, including E85. The corrugated design also prevents kinking and improves fitment in all uses.
AN Fittings: AN is a U.S. military-derived specification standard dating back to World War II, developed as a common standard between the Army and Navy branches. QFS is an authorized dealer of high-quality AN fittings from Phenix Industries, providing customers with the finest aftermarket high-performance fuel and brake system plumbing components available.
PSI/kPa: Pounds per Square Inch/Kilopascal are two standard measurement units when describing fuel pressure regulator specifications. PSI is an Imperial measurement, and kPa is metric. Be sure to reference what measurement unit your model-specific service manual cites.
LPH/GPH: Liters Per Hour/Gallons Per Hour are two frequently cited units of measurement used to reference the amount of fuel a pump can supply over time.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM): Pulse Width Modulation allows an ECU to control EFI fuel pressure by rapidly turning a fuel pump on and off. If more pressure is needed, the length of time the fuel pump is activated extends. Conversely, if less fuel pressure is required, the time the fuel pump is turned on is reduced. This can happen in milliseconds and extends the useful life of a fuel pump by allowing it to work less, operate at a lower temperature, and introduce less heat to the stored fuel. All QFS fuel pumps are PWM-ready.
Done Studying? Reach Out To Our Helpful Staff
Quantum Fuel Systems is open Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PT. Any of our trained and qualified staff members are available to assist customers over the phone. Be sure to reach out to our support staff with any technical questions, and we’ll get back to you as soon as possible.